Installing Gentoo Linux on & nb p; remote server
Installing Linux on a local machine in most cases is not difficult – in the pursuit of an audience, developers supply distributions with sufficiently high-quality installers. When your server is at best behind the wall, and at worst in another state, the installation of the operating system is usually assigned to data center employees. This greatly limits the choice of possible distributions. It is impossible to judge whether it is good or bad, but if you still have the task of installing Gentoo Linux on a remote machine, then this is quite possible.
Gentoo Linux is a source-based distribution, that is, its key feature is the self-assembly of all software from source codes.
The justification of this approach for the server platform is a topic for a separate discussion, and most eternal disputes are full of most Linux forums. We will proceed from the fact that you, having weighed all the pros and cons, have decided to install Gentoo Linux on your dedicated server.
The purpose of the article is a list of potentially dangerous installation steps.
The purpose of writing this article is not an installation guide (this process is described in detail in the documentation), but a listing of the main steps, the error of which can potentially lead to a failure during the installation of the system and an unnecessary contact with the technical support of the data center.
Actually, the task will be as follows. It is necessary to install Gentoo Linux on a remote system via an SSH session, while minimizing the number of operating system reboots and calls to technical support for the data center.
The server itself should be available *, the hardware of which is supported in Gentoo Linux. It must be supplied with a CD-ROM drive and be connected to the network. It is assumed that you will have access to this server over the network and the Internet traffic in the data center is unlimited (at least there should be a gigabyte to the nearest mirror). It is assumed that you know Gentoo Linux in a volume sufficient to install it yourself on a local machine, you understand the essence and purpose of all configuration steps. The text in bold will highlight the key points at which you can potentially make a mistake and which should be treated with special care.
First request for technical support
To begin with we will create the first request in technical support. We need them to download the Gentoo Linux installation disk. First, it must be a disk for our architecture (x86, amd64, etc.). Secondly, we don’t have to be on all the stages and the packages, so we’ll give them a link to the minimal installation image, for example install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso. Then they have to burn this image to a CD, insert it into the drive, configure the BIOS with the first bootable CD-ROM device, and the second with the hard disk and reboot the system. After downloading the LiveCD, they are required to execute two commands in the system. Start SSH server: /etc/init.d/sshd start. And set the root user password that you must pass to them (a random password is generated by default): passwd root. We also mean that they have DHCP configured so that the server can get its IP address automatically. At this point, the first request for technical support is over. Actually, nothing supercomplex is required of them.
After they perform the above request, we have two situations. First, the server is unavailable over the network: it does not ping. You probably chose the wrong architecture, your hardware is not supported by Gentoo Linux, or DHCP is not configured in the data center. The first problem is solved by choosing a different image of the installation disk, the third one is by manually configuring the interface with the ifconfig utility (you will also need to contact the technical support service). An ideal scenario – everything worked right away, the server responds to ICMP packets, and you manage to log in via SSH. In practice, in most cases this is how it turns out.
Next, you need to split the disk into partitions. Here everything is as in the instructions. The main thing – do not forget to make active the partition on which the core will lie.
After the disk structure is in its proper state – mount it into / mnt / gentoo in the correct sequence (depending on how many partitions for which mount points you have done) and upload the required stage (stage, packed minimal file set) from the nearest mirror system) to one of the folders on the mounted file system. Unpack it, install and try to chroot into a future system.
If this stage is a success and when executing standard commands, the Illegal instruction error does not crash – everything is fine. If such an error nevertheless appears – you have chosen a stage that is not built for your architecture. The easiest way to fix this is to unmount all file systems of your future disk.